Django 限制访问频率

最近做了一个系统由于部分接口需要进行耗时操作,因而不希望用户进行频繁访问,需要进行访问频率限制。如果要自己实现一个访问限制功能相对来说也不会太复杂,并且网上有各种代码可以参考。如果自己不想实现这个代码可以使用 Django Ratelimit

Django Ratelimit is a ratelimiting decorator for Django views.

https://travis-ci.org/jsocol/django-ratelimit.png?branch=master
Code: https://github.com/jsocol/django-ratelimit
License: Apache Software License
Issues: https://github.com/jsocol/django-ratelimit/issues
Documentation: http://django-ratelimit.readthedocs.org/

使用方法也相对来说比较简单:

@ratelimit(key='ip', rate='5/m')
def myview(request):
    # Will be true if the same IP makes more than 5 POST
    # requests/minute.
    was_limited = getattr(request, 'limited', False)
    return HttpResponse()
 
@ratelimit(key='ip', rate='5/m', block=True)
def myview(request):
    # If the same IP makes >5 reqs/min, will raise Ratelimited
    return HttpResponse()
 
@ratelimit(key='post:username', rate='5/m', method=['GET', 'POST'])
def login(request):
    # If the same username is used >5 times/min, this will be True.
    # The `username` value will come from GET or POST, determined by the
    # request method.
    was_limited = getattr(request, 'limited', False)
    return HttpResponse()
 
@ratelimit(key='post:username', rate='5/m')
@ratelimit(key='post:tenant', rate='5/m')
def login(request):
    # Use multiple keys by stacking decorators.
    return HttpResponse()
 
@ratelimit(key='get:q', rate='5/m')
@ratelimit(key='post:q', rate='5/m')
def search(request):
    # These two decorators combine to form one rate limit: the same search
    # query can only be tried 5 times a minute, regardless of the request
    # method (GET or POST)
    return HttpResponse()

@ratelimit(key='ip', rate='4/h')
def slow(request):
    # Allow 4 reqs/hour.
    return HttpResponse()
 
rate = lambda r: None if request.user.is_authenticated else '100/h'
@ratelimit(key='ip', rate=rate)
def skipif1(request):
    # Only rate limit anonymous requests
    return HttpResponse()
 
@ratelimit(key='user_or_ip', rate='10/s')
@ratelimit(key='user_or_ip', rate='100/m')
def burst_limit(request):
    # Implement a separate burst limit.
    return HttpResponse()
 
@ratelimit(group='expensive', key='user_or_ip', rate='10/h')
def expensive_view_a(request):
    return something_expensive()
 
@ratelimit(group='expensive', key='user_or_ip', rate='10/h')
def expensive_view_b(request):
    # Shares a counter with expensive_view_a
    return something_else_expensive()
 
@ratelimit(key='header:x-cluster-client-ip')
def post(request):
    # Uses the X-Cluster-Client-IP header value.
    return HttpResponse()
 
@ratelimit(key=lambda r: r.META.get('HTTP_X_CLUSTER_CLIENT_IP',
                                    r.META['REMOTE_ADDR'])
def myview(request):
    # Use `X-Cluster-Client-IP` but fall back to REMOTE_ADDR.
    return HttpResponse()

不过需要注意如果和django rest framwork一起使用的话,要将Ratelimit 装饰器放到第一行,如下:

@ratelimit(key='user', rate='1/3s', block=True, method=ratelimit.ALL)
@api_view(['POST', 'GET'])
@csrf_exempt
def api_get_level(request):

否则会导致如下的错误信息:

IndexError at /rest-api/level/
tuple index out of range
Request Method:	GET
Request URL:	http://192.168.1.195:8006/rest-api/level/
Django Version:	2.2.7
Exception Type:	IndexError
Exception Value:	
tuple index out of range
Exception Location:	F:\PyCharmProjects\server\venv\lib\site-packages\ratelimit\decorators.py in _wrapped, line 23
Python Executable:	F:\PyCharmProjects\server\venv\Scripts\python.exe
Python Version:	3.7.5
Python Path:	
['F:\\PyCharmProjects\\server\\TaichiGameServer',
 'I:\\Python37-64\\python37.zip',
 'I:\\Python37-64\\DLLs',
 'I:\\Python37-64\\lib',
 'I:\\Python37-64',
 'F:\\PyCharmProjects\\server\\venv',
 'F:\\PyCharmProjects\\server\\venv\\lib\\site-packages',
 'F:\\PyCharmProjects\\server\\venv\\lib\\site-packages\\setuptools-39.1.0-py3.7.egg']
Server time:	Tue, 24 Dec 2019 09:49:01 +0800
 
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "F:\PyCharmProjects\server\venv\lib\site-packages\django\core\handlers\exception.py", line 34, in inner
    response = get_response(request)
  File "F:\PyCharmProjects\server\venv\lib\site-packages\django\core\handlers\base.py", line 115, in _get_response
    response = self.process_exception_by_middleware(e, request)
  File "F:\PyCharmProjects\server\venv\lib\site-packages\django\core\handlers\base.py", line 113, in _get_response
    response = wrapped_callback(request, *callback_args, **callback_kwargs)
  File "F:\PyCharmProjects\server\venv\lib\site-packages\django\views\decorators\csrf.py", line 54, in wrapped_view
    return view_func(*args, **kwargs)
  File "F:\PyCharmProjects\server\venv\lib\site-packages\django\views\generic\base.py", line 71, in view
    return self.dispatch(request, *args, **kwargs)
  File "F:\PyCharmProjects\server\venv\lib\site-packages\rest_framework\views.py", line 505, in dispatch
    response = self.handle_exception(exc)
  File "F:\PyCharmProjects\server\venv\lib\site-packages\rest_framework\views.py", line 465, in handle_exception
    self.raise_uncaught_exception(exc)
  File "F:\PyCharmProjects\server\venv\lib\site-packages\rest_framework\views.py", line 476, in raise_uncaught_exception
    raise exc
  File "F:\PyCharmProjects\server\venv\lib\site-packages\rest_framework\views.py", line 502, in dispatch
    response = handler(request, *args, **kwargs)
  File "F:\PyCharmProjects\server\venv\lib\site-packages\rest_framework\decorators.py", line 50, in handler
    return func(*args, **kwargs)
  File "F:\PyCharmProjects\server\venv\lib\site-packages\django\views\decorators\csrf.py", line 54, in wrapped_view
    return view_func(*args, **kwargs)
  File "F:\PyCharmProjects\server\venv\lib\site-packages\ratelimit\decorators.py", line 23, in _wrapped
    request = args[1]
IndexError: tuple index out of range
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